El funcionamiento del cerebro Tomo 1 Aprendizajes y recordaciones (Spanish Edition)

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This is due to the human factor present in the experiment. In the presence of this kind of inconsistencies some conventions have been taken in the literature in order to estimate shelf life distribution using methods and software from the reliability field which requires numerical responses.

In this work we propose a method that does not require coding the original responses into numerical values. We use a more reliable coding by using the Bernoulli response directly and using a Bayesian approach. The resulting method is based on solid Bayesian theory and proved computer programs. We show by means of an example and simulation studies that the new methodology clearly beats the methodology proposed by Hough. We also provide the R software necessary for the implementation.

Definitive Screening Designs DSD are a class of experimental designs that have the possibility to estimate linear, quadratic and interaction effects with relatively little experimental effort. The linear or main effects are completely independent of two factor interactions and quadratic effects. The two factor interactions are not completely confounded with other two factor interactions, and quadratic effects are estimable. The number of experimental runs is twice the number of factors of interest plus one.

Several approaches have been proposed to analyze the results of these experimental plans, some of these approaches take into account the structure of the design, others do not.

The first author of this paper proposed a Bayesian sequential procedure that takes into account the structure of the design, this procedure consider normal and non normal responses. The creators of the DSD originally performed a forward stepwise regression programmed in JMP, and also used the minimization of a bias corrected version of Akaike's information criterion, and later they proposed a frequentist procedure that considers the structure of the DSD.

Both the frequentist and Bayesian procedures, when the number of experimental runs is twice the number of factors of interest plus one, use as initial step fitting a model with only main effects and then check the significance of these effects to proceed.


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In this paper we present modification of the Bayesian procedure that incorporates the Bayesian factor identification which is an approach that computes, for each factor, the posterior probability that it is active, this includes the possibility that it is present in linear, quadratic or two factor interactions. This a more comprehensive approach than just testing the significance of an effect.

Definitive Screening Designs are a class of experimental designs that under factor sparsity have the potential to estimate linear, quadratic and interaction effects with little experimental effort. BAYESDEF is a package that performs a five step strategy to analyze this kind of experiments that makes use of tools coming from the Bayesian approach. It also includes the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator lasso as a check Aguirre VM.

With the advent of widespread computing and availability of open source programs to perform many different programming tasks, nowadays there is a trend in Statistics to program tailor made applications for non statistical customers in various areas. This is an alternative to having a large statistical package with many functions many of which never are used. Consonance Analysis is a useful numerical and graphical exploratory approach for evaluating the consistency of the measurements and the panel of people involved in sensory evaluation.

It makes use of several uni and multivariate techniques either graphical or analytical, particularly Principal Components Analysis. The package is implemented in a graphical user interface in order to get a user friendly package. Definitive screening designs DSDs are a class of experimental designs that allow the estimation of linear, quadratic, and interaction effects with little experimental effort if there is effect sparsity.

Many industrial experiments involve nonnormal responses. Generalized linear models GLMs are a useful alternative for analyzing these kind of data. The analysis of GLMs is based on asymptotic theory, something very debatable, for example, in the case of the DSD with only 13 experimental runs. So far, analysis of DSDs considers a normal response. In this work, we show a five-step strategy that makes use of tools coming from the Bayesian approach to analyze this kind of experiment when the response is nonnormal. We consider the case of binomial, gamma, and Poisson responses without having to resort to asymptotic approximations.

We use posterior odds that effects are active and posterior probability intervals for the effects and use them to evaluate the significance of the effects. We also combine the results of the Bayesian procedure with the lasso estimation procedure to enhance the scope of the method.

It is not uncommon to deal with very small experiments in practice. For example, if the experiment is conducted on the production process, it is likely that only a very few experimental runs will be allowed. If testing involves the destruction of expensive experimental units, we might only have very small fractions as experimental plans. In this paper, we will consider the analysis of very small factorial experiments with only four or eight experimental runs.

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In addition, the methods presented here could be easily applied to larger experiments. A Daniel plot of the effects to judge significance may be useless for this type of situation. Instead, we will use different tools based on the Bayesian approach to judge significance.

Enfermería psiquiátrica y en salud mental Tomo I

The first tool consists of the computation of the posterior probability that each effect is significant. The second tool is referred to in Bayesian analysis as the posterior distribution for each effect. Combining these tools with the Daniel plot gives us more elements to judge the signiicance of an effect. Because, in practice, the response may not necessarily be normally distributed, we will extend our approach to the generalized linear model setup. By simulation, we will show that not only in the case of discrete responses and very small experiments, the usual large sample approach for modeling generalized linear models may produce a very biased and variable estimators, but also that the Bayesian approach provides a very sensible results.

Inference for quantile regression parameters presents two problems. First, it is computationally costly because estimation requires optimising a non-differentiable objective function which is a formidable numerical task, specially with many number of observations and regressors. Second, it is controversial because standard asymptotic inference requires the choice of smoothing parameters and different choices may lead to different conclusions. Bootstrap methods solve the latter problem at the price of enlarging the former. We give a theoretical justification for a new inference method consisting of the construction of asymptotic pivots based on a small number of bootstrap replications.

We show its usefulness to draw inferences on linear or non-linear functions of the parameters of quantile regression models. The existing methods for analyzing unreplicated fractional factorial experiments that do not contemplate the possibility of outliers in the data have a poor performance for detecting the active effects when that contingency becomes a reality. There are some methods to detect active effects under this experimental setup that consider outliers. We propose a new procedure based on robust regression methods to estimate the effects that allows for outliers.

We perform a simulation study to compare its behavior relative to existing methods and find that the new method has a very competitive or even better power. The relative power improves as the contamination and size of outliers increase when the number of active effects is up to four. The paper presents the asymptotic theory of the efficient method of moments when the model of interest is not correctly specified. The paper assumes a sequence of independent and identically distributed observations and a global misspecification.

It is found that the limiting distribution of the estimator is still asymptotically normal, but it suffers a strong impact in the covariance matrix. A consistent estimator of this covariance matrix is provided. The large sample distribution on the estimated moment function is also obtained. These results are used to discuss the situation when the moment conditions hold but the model is misspecified. It also is shown that the overidentifying restrictions test has asymptotic power one whenever the limit moment function is different from zero.

It is also proved that the bootstrap distributions converge almost surely to the previously mentioned distributions and hence they could be used as an alternative to draw inferences under misspecification. Interestingly, it is also shown that bootstrap can be reliably applied even if the number of bootstrap replications is very small.

It is well known that outliers or faulty observations affect the analysis of unreplicated factorial experiments. This work proposes a method that combines the rank transformation of the observations, the Daniel plot and a formal statistical testing procedure to assess the significance of the effects. It is shown, by means of previous theoretical results cited in the literature, examples and a Monte Carlo study, that the approach is helpful in the presence of outlying observations.

The simulation study includes an ample set of alternative procedures that have been published in the literature to detect significant effects in unreplicated experiments. The Monte Carlo study also, gives evidence that using the rank transformation as proposed, provides two advantages: keeps control of the experimentwise error rate and improves the relative power to detect active factors in the presence of outlying observations.

Publicaciones de la facultad

Most of the inferential results are based on the assumption that the user has a "random" sample, by this it is usually understood that the observations are a realization from a set of independent identically distributed random variables. However most of the time this is not true mainly for two reasons: one, the data are not obtained by means of a probabilistic sampling scheme from the population, the data are just gathered as they becomes available or in the best of the cases using some kind of control variables and quota sampling. For an excellent discussion about the kind of considerations that should be made in the first situation see Hahn and Meeker and a related comment in Aguirre For the second problem there is a book about the topic in Skinner et a1.

In this paper we consider the problem of evaluating the effect of sampling complexity on Pearson's Chi-square and other alternative tests for goodness of fit for proportions. Out of this work come up several adjustments to Pearson's test, namely: Wald type tests, average eigenvalue correction and Satterthwaite type correction. There is a more recent and general resampling approach given in Sitter , but it was not pursued in this study.

Sometimes data analysis using the usual parametric techniques produces misleading results due to violations of the underlying assumptions, such as outliers or non-constant variances. In particular, this could happen in unreplicated factorial or fractional factorial experiments. To help in this situation alternative analyses have been proposed.