Surviving The Floods: A Practice Book For Practical Use of the Scriptures
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Emission controls lacking, poorly planned development vulnerable development , stressed ecosystems less able to cope. Directed take of low value species at high volumes exceeding sustainable levels. Subsistence and market demands food and medicinal , industrialisation of fisheries, improved fish-finding technology, poor regional agreements, lack of enforcement, breakdown of traditional regulation systems, subsidies. Demand for specialty foods and medicines, aquarium fish and curios, lack of awareness or concern about impacts, technological advances, commodification.
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Bosire, D. Lo Seen and N. Koedam FAO IUCN Kay, R. Alder Coastal planning and management. Rutinbeek, H. Government of Indonesia, Dalhousie University. Mangroves for the future: A strategy for promoting investment in coastal ecosystem conservation, UNEP Wetlands International Cited 15 June.
Clearing of mangrove forests makes coastal areas more susceptible to erosion.
Gegar Prasetya Adapted from: The Role of coastal forests and trees in protecting against coastal erosion. Coastal protection in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami: What role for the forests and trees? Coastal erosion is a complex process. There is a strong relation between major coastal erosion problems and the protective functions of coastal systems. Erosion is widespread in the coastal zones of Asia. Erosion persists even where preventive measures such as sea dykes are constructed. Beach scour has been found along coasts with sea-dyke protection.
This erosion is attributable to many factors such as river damming and diversion that leads to less sediment supply to the coast, and the clearing of mangrove forests, which makes coastal areas more susceptible to the hazard. Juxtaposing these phenomena, the intensification of typhoons and storm surges during the year period between and has meant that storm surges with increasing tidal levels exceeding one and two metres have occurred and 48 times respectively, thus exacerbating the erosion problem.
Most of the sediment taken offshore by the storm waves has been returned in minimal quantities to the coast during normal conditions owing to the frequent storm intensity. According to Othman , nearly 30 per cent of the Malaysian coastline is undergoing erosion. Many of these areas are coastal mudflats, fringed by mangroves. Behind the mangroves there are usually agricultural fields protected from tidal inundation by bunds dykes.
Locally, mangroves are known to reduce wave energy as waves travel through them; thus, the Department of Irrigation and Drainage has ruled that at least metres of mangrove belts must be kept between the bunds and the sea to protect the bunds from eroding. However, the mangroves themselves are susceptible to erosion when the soil under their root systems is undermined by wave action that mostly occurs during periods of lower water level or low tide.
This massive erosion—mostly due to wave and current action—and vanishing mangrove vegetation is attributable to the long-term impacts of human activities since the late 19th century and also human-induced change within watersheds dam construction that has reduced the sediment supply to the shore. Erosion still occurs in the central coastal zone of Vietnam and preventive measures such as sea dykes, revetments, and tree plantations have been implemented in many coastal areas. In the southern coastal zone, however, mangrove plantations have mitigated wave action and prevented further erosion Cat et al.
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The rapid erosion of the coast of Sagar island in West Bengal, India, is caused by several processes that act in concert. These are natural processes that occur frequently cyclones, waves and tides that can reach six metres in height and anthropogenic activities such as human settlement and aquaculture that remove mangroves and other coastal vegetation.
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The erosion rate from to was calculated to be 5. The areas that are severely affected by erosion are the northeastern, southwestern, and southeastern faces of the island. Malini and Rao reported coastal erosion and habitat loss along the Godavari delta front owing to the combination of the dam construction across the Godavari and its tributaries that diminishes sediment supply to the coast and continued coastal land subsidence. It has become more serious because mangroves are being eradicated by encroachment human settlement , fuel wood cutting and the clearing of coastal areas for intensive shrimp culture.
Mangrove forest cover was estimated to be approximately 12, hectares in This dwindled to 8, hectares in and was estimated to be only 6, hectares in Samrayanke, In Indonesia, coastal erosion started in the northern coast of Java Island in the s when most of the mangrove forest had been converted to shrimp ponds and other aquaculture activities, and the area was also subjected to unmanaged coastal development, diversion of upland freshwater and river damming.
They succeeded in stopping coastal erosion on Sanur, Nusa Dua and Tanjung Benoa beaches, but were neither cost-effective nor efficient, because during low tide all of the coastal area was exposed up to metres offshore; thus, these huge structures were revealed and became eyesores.
In Thailand, intensification of coastal erosion came in focus during the past decade Thampanya et al. Overall, the net erosion is approximately 1.
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Total area losses amount to 0. Most of the eroded areas increase with larger areas of shrimp farms and less mangrove forest area. When dams reduce riverine inputs and coastal land subsidence transpires. In areas where erosion has prevailed, the presence of mangroves has reduced erosion rates.
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Mangroves dominating coastal locations exhibit less erosion than areas with non-vegetated land or former mangrove areas. Such examples indicate that there is a strong relation between major coastal erosion problems throughout the region and degradation of the protective function of coastal systems such as coastal forest and trees—particularly mangrove forest. Artificial and natural agents that induce mangrove loss and make coastal areas more susceptible to coastal erosion include anthropogenic factors such as excessive logging, direct land reclamation for agriculture, aquaculture, salt ponds, urban development and settlement, and to a lesser extent fires, storms, hurricanes, tidal waves and erosion cycles, owing to changing sea levels Kovacs, More scientific investigation and quantification of the physical processes and dynamic interaction of the system is needed to understand how and under what circumstances mangrove forests and other coastal vegetation effectively protect the shoreline from erosion.
A number of efforts have focussed on field observations, laboratory and numerical model experiments and theoretical analysis Wolanski, ; Mazda et al. In terms of temporal scales, the issue of sea level rise is complex and produces a range of environmental problems. As the sea level rises, the water depth increases and the wave base becomes deeper; waves reaching the coast have more energy and therefore can erode and transport greater quantities of sediment.
Thus, the coast starts to adjust to the new sea level to maintain a dynamic equilibrium. Figure 3. The key physical parameters that need to be understood to identify coastal erosion as a problem in the coastal zone are:. Under the right environmental conditions, wind may transfer sediment from the beach environment landward on all open coastlines. They introduce energy to the coast and also a series of currents that move sediment along the shore longshore drift and normally to the shore cross-shore transport. It is important to understand the movement of wave forms as well as water particles and their interaction with seabed material; also how the waves determine whether the coasts are erosive or accretional.
They modulate wave action, controlling energy arriving on the coast and drive groundwater fluctuation and tidal currents. The interaction of groundwater with tides in the coastal forest environment is crucial in understanding why coastal forest clearance causes intensive coastal erosion in particular environments. Equally significant human activities that must be considered over the range of spatial and time scales are:. This can occur in the short term less than five years or the long term more than five years.