Vénézuela - Los Llanos (French Edition)

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In terms of child rearing the national culture espouses Western ideals of good behavior, education, and competitiveness. On top of this an enormous amount of friendliness, generosity, and overall good nature is expected of children as they grow up. Venezuela provides free and compulsory education through grade twelve for all its population.

In literacy was estimated at over 90 percent.


  1. ISBN 13: 9788449982682.
  2. Winds of Change: Declaring War on Education.
  3. NCS, LLC.; 06-0699 07/27/07.
  4. English translation of 'llano'.
  5. Why you should visit Venezuela – when order is restored | The Independent.

Private and Catholic schools provide a large array of grade and high schools liceos mainly in the major urban centers. These private institutions have far better reputations and are where most of the middle and upper classes send their children. Higher Education. In general only percent of Venezuela's population goes on to obtain a university degree. Since the s there has been an increasing proliferation of private universities although by far the ones with the best reputations are public ones such as the Universidad Central de Caracas the Central University in Caracas.

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A university degree or title normally referred to as carrera traditionally takes between four and five years after which one obtains the degree of licenciado equivalent to or higher than the bachelor of arts degree in the United States. There are a series of master's level graduate programs but doctorates at the Ph. Venezuelans are characterized by their outgoing and gregarious nature.

This extroverted behavior is visible in the traditional forms of greeting and in people's body language. When meeting somebody, even if it is for the first time, it is common to give two kisses, one on each cheek; women greet men and women this way, while men only kiss women. Between men a strong-gripped handshake is the custom and many times this is accompanied by the placing of the other hand on the side for greater emphasis.

A hug is also used between men, especially if the men have not seen each other for a while. These forms of male greeting, however, are used for people of equal status and indicate familiarity and therefore are not be used with somebody of higher status. Body language between Venezuelans is also much more fluid and pervasive. People stand very close to each other while talking and will gesticulate with their hands and bodies to make a point. It is also common for people to touch each other to even further emphasize what it is that they are saying. Friendly conversations can also appear to be arguments because of their loud and freewheeling nature.

Meanwhile there is also lots of unique sign language. For example, pointing with one's finger is considered rude and vulgar; it is much more acceptable and widely understood if one just points with one's mouth.

South America :: Venezuela — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency

At the same time a smaller version of the "okay" symbol is usually meant as an insult rather than as a symbol of agreement. A peddler selling Venezuelan flags. There is also an enormous amount of public expression of machismo. Women are customarily showered with remarks and gazes from men who want to display admiration and awe at their sexual beauty.

This behavior, however, very rarely goes further than a piropo small adulatory phrase and any touching or pinching is not condoned.

Women tend to ignore most of these remarks and from early on learn not to publicly acknowledge them either favorably or not. Religious Beliefs. Most Venezuelans—at least 90 percent of the population—are Catholic. Since the s, Protestant religions have been attracting more followers, especially Evangelists and Adventists, and to a lesser degree, Mormons.

Colombian-Venezuelan llano work songs

Venezuela also has a smaller number of Islamic practitioners. Most indigenous religious practices were lost with the decimation of the Native American population and the few surviving indigenous populations practice their religious traditions in complete isolation from the national culture. This culto has its home base in the hill of Sorte, near the small town of Chivacoa, just east of the larger western city of Barquisimeto.

She is traditionally represented with two other figures, that of a black henchman, el Negro Felipe, and of an Indian cacique chief , Guaicapuro. The three of them together are traditionally referred to as the Three Powers Tres Poderes. Another interesting religious belief shared by Venezuelans is the veneration for the figure of Dr. This Venezuelan doctor, who lived during the late s, was recently given venerable status by the Vatican but is still not officially recognized as a saint by the church.

Nevertheless, this has not deterred a widespread following in Venezuela and other Latin American countries that proclaims Brother Gregorio as he is referred to a miraculous healer who actually operates and heals people while they sleep. Rituals, and Holy Places. The Catholicism practiced in Venezuela very much follows the guidelines of the Roman hierarchy.

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Masses are held everyday but attendance is obligatory only on Sunday. Since the Second Vatican Council masses are no longer said in Latin but in Spanish, and the priest males only now faces the public as opposed to celebrating the ritual with his back to them. The mass is believed to recreate Jesus' last supper with his apostles before his crucifixion, and the ritual itself is believed to transform bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ to be partaken of by everybody free of mortal sin.

There are Catholic churches throughout Venezuela with the most impressive cathedrals located in Caracas and other major cities. In smaller towns, however, there are also churches with a grand colonial architectural style: these churches had greater importance during Venezuela's colonial period than they do now. During these trances they "see" what is in the supplicant's psyche and what the future has in store for them. Even though this culto has a strong rural and Afro-indigenous origin it is not uncommon to see practitioners from all social backgrounds and classes involved.

Death and the Afterlife. Venezuelans' belief in the afterlife follows the Roman Catholic belief in hell for those who were evil in life , purgatory for those who still need to do penance for their sins , and heaven for those without any fault.

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In the practices of Maria Lonza and San Gregorio, however, both also express the possibility of communicating with dead spirits and deities. These beliefs in establishing an actual connection with the world beyond death are closer to the beliefs of African-based religions such as voodoo than to those of Christianity.

Agricultural Earthworks on the French Guiana Coast

Venezuela's health-care system has a large array of public and private hospitals and clinics. Even though the country's health coverage is better than that of most other South American countries, its public system is still far from exemplary. The public hospitals normally have long lines and waiting periods, and they tend to be understaffed there is a particular shortage of nurses with the staff they do have being overworked.

Private clinics, however, are quite well operated, and the people who can afford to can get some of the best medical care in the world. Similar to other "developed" Western nations, most deaths in Venezuela are due to heart attacks, cancer, and fatal accidents. Parishioners push a portable shrine past a church during a festival. Most Venezuelans practice Catholicism. In general the death rate is four for every thousand, while the birth rate is twenty-nine for every thousand.

Most traditional tropical and third world diseases have been eradicated in Venezuela, although infant mortality is still much higher than in most European countries. Although Western medicine is the most popular mode of health care, other non-Western traditions are surprisingly still present. Surviving in many rural belief systems, herbal remedies including rubbing the body with plants while saying certain prayers are still widely believed to cure nontraditional ailments such as the evil eye and various emotional afflictions.

There are several important and officially recognized holidays in Venezuela other than New Year's and Christmas. Carnival is by far one of the liveliest Venezuelan traditions. This holiday falls on the three days prior to Ash Wednesday in the Catholic calendar. It normally means a holiday exodus from Caracas and other cities to Venezuela's Caribbean coast and even to Trinidad an island off the northeast coast of Venezuela , which is famous for its Carnival celebrations.

In the coastal towns Carnival means general partying with lots of drinking and dancing, parades with drummers and people in costumes, and a generally greater level of sexual undertones. Support for the Arts. Since the s the Venezuelan state has invested in developing and maintaining a national culture through the arts.

The two areas that have most benefited from this support have been literature and music.

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Caracas features a publicly financed symphony orchestra that plays not only classical genres but also the more nationalistic genre of joropos. The state also supports several museums that house some of the national artistic production. The three prime ones are: the Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded in ; the Museum of Colonial Art, which is located in an eighteenth century house; and the Museum of Natural Sciences, which was founded in and houses over fifteen thousand exhibits.

All three are located in Caracas.

Very few Venezuelan artists are known outside of the national borders. Graphic Arts. Performance Arts. In music, Venezuela has produced one of the world's leading salsa bands in the person of Oscar D'Leon whose music has become emblematic of this genre's tradition even in Puerto Rico and New York City the original sources of salsa music. World pop diva Mariah Carey is the daughter of an Afro-Venezuelan man. The actual scientific research carried out in Venezuela has not been significantly registered outside of its national borders. The country includes high quality universities and research institutions such as the National Academy of History, the Royal Academy of Language, and the Central University in Caracas.

Interestingly enough, initial research pursuits date back to the s with Dr. An intense research spirit is still alive, if not continentally disseminated. A small example of these are the historical works of such scholars as Iraida Vargas and Mario Sanoja. Alfonso, Alejandro. Allen, Loring. Baloyra, Enrique A. Venezuela: Oil and Politics, Blanck, David Eugene. Venezuela: Politics in a Petroleum Country, Braveboy-Wagner, Jacqueline Anne.